I know, right? My first hard drive was 40MB, in two 20MB partitions. And we were glad for that space!
Back in the present, now it was time to add another hard drive. This (otherwise) tiny rooted plug server contained two 3TB USB hard drives in a RAID-1 configuration through the Linux md module. On top of that is lvm. lvm itself could have been used for the RAID-1, but has the disadvantage of not being able to optimize multiple reads, whereas md can allow both disks in the mirror serve different reads at the same time.
I bought a third disk of the same model, so it could be added in to a RAID-5 configuration. These being big USB drives, operations that read and write the disks as a whole (such as RAID rebuild operations) take a while. A long while. I could have unmounted, disassembled the array, rebuilt it as RAID-5, and brought it back after, but keeping it offline for that amount of time wasn't too appealing. Lets attempt an online conversion.
First up, confirming the disks are all the same exact size:
root@plug01:/backup# blockdev --getsize64 /dev/sdd2 2999557554176 root@plug01:/backup# blockdev --getsize64 /dev/sdc2 2999557554176 root@plug01:/backup# blockdev --getsize64 /dev/sdb2 2999557554176mdadm says the array is in good shape, but it won't be for long. We'll need to break the RAID-1 in order to recreate the RAID-5. Yes, it's as scary as it sounds. Backups were double checked. Backups were triple checked. To break the array set one of the devices as failed, then remove it:
Number Major Minor RaidDevice State 0 8 34 0 active sync /dev/sdc2 1 8 18 1 active sync /dev/sdb2 root@plug01:/backup# mdadm /dev/md0 -f /dev/sdc2 # Set as failed mdadm: set /dev/sdc2 faulty in /dev/md0 root@plug01:/backup# mdadm /dev/md0 -r /dev/sdc2 # Remove from array mdadm: hot removed /dev/sdc2 from /dev/md0Now we have an ex-RAID-1 (sdb2) with two spare disks (sdc2 and sdd2.) Those two spare partitions can then be put into a RAID-5 configuration.
Wait, what? RAID-5 with two disks? Sure, I could have created a 3-device RAID-5 with one marked as "missing" but I wanted to restore the redundancy as soon as possible, and so gave it a shot. Lo and behold...
root@plug01:/backup# mdadm --create /dev/md1 --level=5 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sdc2 /dev/sdd2 mdadm: /dev/sdc2 appears to be part of a raid array: level=raid1 devices=2 ctime=Sat Jan 12 05:25:51 2013 Continue creating array? y mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata mdadm: array /dev/md1 started. root@plug01:/backup# mdadm -D /dev/md1 /dev/md1: Version : 1.2 Creation Time : Fri Jan 3 20:13:05 2014 Raid Level : raid5 Array Size : 2929253888 (2793.55 GiB 2999.56 GB) Used Dev Size : 2929253888 (2793.55 GiB 2999.56 GB) Raid Devices : 2 Total Devices : 2 Persistence : Superblock is persistent Update Time : Fri Jan 3 20:13:05 2014 State : clean, degraded, recovering Active Devices : 1 Working Devices : 2 Failed Devices : 0 Spare Devices : 1 Layout : left-symmetric Chunk Size : 512K Rebuild Status : 0% complete Name : plug01:1 (local to host plug01) UUID : 1d493c17:7a443a6d:e6c121b4:53e8b9a1 Events : 0 Number Major Minor RaidDevice State 0 8 34 0 active sync /dev/sdc2 2 8 50 1 spare rebuilding /dev/sdd2Seems to have worked! The array build will do its thing in the background, but we can start using it immediately. Since we want the redundancy back sooner than later, lets start moving the data off the now single disk it resides on. Since we're using lvm, this is just a matter of having it move the volume group from the old pv to the new one. That process does take a long time. Set up the physical volume structure, add it to the volume group, and start the move process:
root@plug01:/backup# pvcreate /dev/md1 Found duplicate PV gejBFzirMdX0KSGMO6S1TYQSOBJTUqOw: using /dev/md0 not /dev/md1 get_pv_from_vg_by_id: vg_read_internal failed to read VG plug01 Physical volume "/dev/md1" successfully created root@plug01:/backup# vgextend array1 /dev/md1 Volume group "array1" successfully extended root@plug01:/backup# pvmove /dev/md0 /dev/md1 /dev/md0: Moved: 0.0% /dev/md0: Moved: 0.0% <snip> /dev/md0: Moved: 99.9% /dev/md0: Moved: 100.0% /dev/md0: Moved: 100.0%Clean up the now-abandoned disk, then add it to the new RAID-5...
root@plug01:/backup# vgreduce array1 /dev/md0 Removed "/dev/md0" from volume group "array1" root@plug01:/backup# vgs VG #PV #LV #SN Attr VSize VFree array1 1 1 0 wz--n- 2.73t 28.75g root@plug01:/backup# pvremove /dev/md0 Labels on physical volume "/dev/md0" successfully wiped root@plug01:/backup# mdadm --stop /dev/md0 mdadm: stopped /dev/md0 root@plug01:/backup# mdadm --add /dev/md1 /dev/sdb2 mdadm: added /dev/sdb2 root@plug01:/backup# mdadm --grow --raid-devices=3 --backup-file=/root/tmp/md1.bak /dev/md1 mdadm: /dev/md1 is performing resync/recovery and cannot be reshapedOh, our pvmove activity superseded the array build procedure, so we have to wait until that finishes before we can grow the RAID-5. While we're waiting, I'll note that the operation backs up some of the metadata to an external file at the very start of the procedure, just in case something happens early on in the process. It doesn't need it for long.
There, that's probably enough waiting...
root@plug01:/backup# mdadm --grow --raid-devices=3 --backup-file=/root/tmp/md1.bak /dev/md1 mdadm: Need to backup 1024K of critical section.. root@plug01:~# cat /proc/mdstat Personalities : [raid1] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] md1 : active raid5 sdb2 sdd2 sdc2 2929253888 blocks super 1.2 level 5, 512k chunk, algorithm 2 [3/3] [UUU] [>....................] reshape = 0.5% (16832872/2929253888) finish=9666.3min speed=5021K/sec unused devices:More waiting. After that completes we're then able to resize the pv to take up that space, and then resize the lv. Note that the lv doesn't take up the entirety of the pv and has a little bit of space reserved for snapshots.
root@plug01:/backup# pvresize /dev/md1 Physical volume "/dev/md1" changed 1 physical volume(s) resized / 0 physical volume(s) not resized root@plug01:/backup# lvextend -L 5558g /dev/mapper/array1-vol1 Extending logical volume vol1 to 5.43 TiB Logical volume vol1 successfully resized root@plug01:/backup# pvs PV VG Fmt Attr PSize PFree /dev/md1 array1 lvm2 a- 5.46t 29.11g root@plug01:/backup# vgs VG #PV #LV #SN Attr VSize VFree array1 1 1 0 wz--n- 5.46t 29.11g root@plug01:/backup# lvs LV VG Attr LSize Origin Snap% Move Log Copy% Convert vol1 array1 -wi-ao 5.43tAnd the last step, perform an online resize of the ext4 volume:
root@plug01:/backup# resize2fs /dev/mapper/array1-vol1 resize2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010) Filesystem at /dev/mapper/array1-vol1 is mounted on /mnt/disk01; on-line resizing required old desc_blocks = 173, new_desc_blocks = 348 Performing an on-line resize of /dev/mapper/array1-vol1 to 1456996352 (4k) blocks. The filesystem on /dev/mapper/array1-vol1 is now 1456996352 blocks long. root@plug01:/backup# df -h /dev/mapper/array1-vol1 Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/mapper/array1-vol1 5.4T 2.6T 2.6T 50% /mnt/disk01There, a completely new array structure and a bunch more space without having to unmount the filesystem for a moment!